Fungal Infection

                                                          BLACK FUNGUS

Mucormycosis is commonly known as black fungus, a rare non-contagious disease caused by inhalation of mucor spores in immunocompromised patients.

Risk factors:

PeoplesufferingfromCOVID-19, usage of steroids in COVID-19 treatment, oxygen support in severe COVID-19 results in drying of the nasal cavity, HIV/AIDSandotherviraldiseases,congenital-bonemarrow disease, severe burns, cancers, untreated diabetes have reduced immunity and are prone to mucormycosis.

Pathophysiology:

When Mucor invades the body cavities the spores germinate, hyphae outgrow and release toxins which digest the host tissue and provide nutrition to the fungi.  As they grow in the nasal cavity they relentlessly destroy the surrounding host tissue like lungs, intraorbital and intracranial regions.

Signs and Symptoms:

Fever, headache, reddish and swollen skin near the nose or eyes, drooping of eyelids, facial pain, cough, stuffy and bleeding nose, shortness of breath, blurred and finally loss of vision.

Diagnosis:

Tissue biopsy and an X-ray scan of the lungs.

As the black fungus infection in Covid patients is rising, there are some  preventive measure which could help to reduce the threat.
Black Fungus

Management:

1. Control diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis.                              

2. Tapper steroids if on steroid treatment as steroids will reduce immunity

3. Discontinue immunomodulatory drugs

4. Surgical debridement – to remove all necrotic tissues

6. Medical management with anti fungal.

ThedrugsusedinthetreatmentofmucormycosisareamphotericinBandposaconazole.Usually,asingledoseofthedrugisgiventoapatientdaily,dependingonhismedical conditionfor4-6weeks.Insomecases,thedrugisgiventoapatientforseveraldays,weekstoseveralmonths.Ifleftuntreated,mucormycosiscanbelife-threatening,withamortalityrateof54%,accordingtothe reports from CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention(CDC).

7. Monitor patients clinically and with radio-imaging for response and to detect disease progression

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